Laid-Back Approach and Strategic Deception: Russia’s Dual Strategy in Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Radityo Dharmaputra

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jgs.14.2.2020.373-388
Abstract views = 238 times | downloads = 437 times

Abstract


Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan secara singkat respons awal pemerintahan Rusia, di bawah pemerintahan Putin, terhadap krisis pandemi Covid-19 sejak awal Januari sampai dengan awal September ketika Rusia meluncurkan vaksin Sputnik V. Penulis berargumen bahwa respons Rusia memiliki karakteristik khas: dualitas antara pendekatan santai disertai dengan segala bentuk disinformasi serta kontranarasi dalam kerangka muslihat strategis untuk mencapai tujuan. Pola respons yang santai sejak awal telah ditampilkan oleh pemerintahan Rusia, ditandai dengan keengganan menetapkan situasi darurat sejak awal dan upaya menutupi informasi mengenai kasus positif. Pola ini lantas berlanjut dalam bentuk langkah strategis yang diambil yaitu pendelegasian kewenangan kepada pemerintah lokal dan regional. Strategi yang menurunkan resiko bagi pemerintah ini ternyata mendorong turunnya legitimasi dari rezim, sehingga pemerintah melakukan upaya tambahan dengan melakukan muslihat strategis: disinformasi dan propaganda domestik serta upaya memunculkan kontranarasi di level global demi amannya legitimasi internal rezim dan tercapainya posisi Rusia sebagai pemimpin alternatif di dunia.

 

Kata-kata kunci: COVID-19, Rusia, rezim Putin, pendekatan santai, muslihat strategis

 

This paper aims to describe the initial responses of the Russian government, under Putin’s administration, to the Covid-19 pandemic from early January to early September 2020 when Russia launched the Sputnik V vaccine. The author argues that Russia’s responses have distinctive characteristics: a duality between laid-back approaches accompanied by all forms of disinformation and counter-narrative in the framework of strategic deception. The Russian government has displayed a laid-back pattern of responses from the start, marked by a reluctance to establish emergencies and the efforts to cover up information regarding positive cases. This pattern then continues in the form of strategic steps taken, which is the delegation of authority to local and regional governments. This strategy, while lowering the risks for the government, precipitated the decline of the legitimacy of the regime. The government then makes additional efforts by committing strategic deception: disinformation and domestic propaganda as well as efforts to generate counter-narrative at the global level in order to secure the regime’s internal legitimacy and achieve Russia’s position as an alternative leader in the world.

 

Keywords: COVID-19, Russia, Putin’s regime, laid-back approach, strategic deception

Keywords


COVID-19; Russia; Putin’s regime; laid-back approach; strategic deception

Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku

Hudson, V.M. dan Day, B.S., 2020. Foreign policy analysis: Classic and contemporary theory. 3rd Ed. London: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.

Journal and Online Journal

Åslund, A., 2020. “Responses to the COVID-19 crisis in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, DOI: 10.1080/15387216.2020.1778499.

Laruelle, M. dan McCann, M., 2020. “Post-Soviet State Responses to COVID-19: Making or Breaking Authoritarianism?”, PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo, No. 641, March 2020.

Morozov, V., Kurowska, X., dan Reshetnikov, A., 2018. “Why Russia’s strategic deception is popular: The cultural appeal of the trickster”, PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo, No. 554, December 2018.

Sukhankin, S., 2020. “Covid-19 as a Tool of Information Confrontation: Russia’s Approach”, SPP Communiqué, 13(3), April 2020.

Dokumen Resmi Pemerintahan

Kremlin.ru, 2020a. “Meeting on coronavirus pandemic development and preventive measures”, 7 April [daring]. dalam http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/63173 [diakses 7 Agustus 2020].

Kremlin.ru, 2020b. “Meeting with Government members”, 17 Maret [daring]. dalam http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/63001 [diakses 5 Agustus 2020].

Kremlin.ru, 2020c. “Meeting with Government members”, 4 Maret [daring]. dalam http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/page/27 [diakses 5 Agustus 2020].

Kremlin.ru, 2020d. “Address to the Nation”, 2 April [daring]. dalam http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/63133 [diakses 2 September 2020].

Artikel Daring

“Russia”, Worldometers, 12 September [daring]. dalam https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/russia/ [diakses 12 September 2020].

Aleksejeva, N., 2020. “Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the Kremlin insists it has everything under control”, DFR Lab, 27 Mei [daring]. dalam https://medium.com/dfrlab/amid-the-covid-19-pandemic-the-kremlin-insists-it-has-everything-under-control-c7a5f551f2c3 [diakses 10 September 2020].

Berdy, M.A., 2020. “How Russia’s coronavirus crisis got so bad”, Politico.eu, 24 Mei [daring]. dalam https://www.politico.eu/article/how-russias-coronavirus-crisis-got-so-bad-vladimir-putin-covid19/ [diakses 10 September 2020].

De Groot, K., 2020. “Diagnosing Russia’s COVID-19 response”, Penn Today, 7 Mei [daring]. dalam https://penntoday.upenn.edu/news/diagnosing-russias-covid-19-response [diakses 10 September 2020].

Dharmaputra, R., 2020. “Rusia, Kontranarasi dan Pandemi”, Emerging Indonesia Project Insight, 10 Mei [daring]. dalam https://emergingindonesia.com/2020/05/10/rusia-kontranarasi-dan-pandemi/ [diakses 12 Agustus 2020].

Eckel, M., 2020. “A Mystery Wrapped In An Enigma Inside A Russian Coronavirus Aid Shipment To The U.S.”, RFE/RL, 3 April [daring]. dalam https://www.rferl.org/a/russian-coronavirus-aid-shipment-u-s-mystery-sanctions-propaganda/30529019.html [diakses 10 September 2020].

Galeotti, M., 2020. “Russia Is Weathering COVID-19, No Thanks to Putin”, World Politics Review, 10 Juni [daring]. dalam https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/28826/russia-s-putin-is-failing-to-deal-with-covid-19-and-russians-know-it [diakses 12 September 2020].

Gebrekidan, S., 2020. “For Autocrats, and Others, Coronavirus Is a Chance to Grab Even More Power”, The New York Times, 30 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/30/world/europe/coronavirus-governments-power.html [diakses 10 September 2020].

Gozman, L., 2020. “Putin Is Warping Russia’s Pandemic Response”, Foreign Policy, 4 Juni [daring]. dalam https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/04/putin-is-warping-russias-pandemic-response/ [diakses 10 Agustus 2020].

Heerdt, W. dan Kostelancik, T., 2020. “Russia’s Response to Covid-19”, CSIS, 10 April [daring]. dalam https://www.csis.org/analysis/russias-response-covid-19 [diakses 10 September 2020].

Interfax, 2020a. “У приехавшего из Италии россиянина обнаружили коронавирус”, 2 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.interfax.ru/russia/697390 [diakses 10 Agustus 2020].

Interfax, 2020b. “Путин заявил о контроле над ситуацией с коронавирусом в России”, 1 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.interfax.ru/russia/697259 [diakses 11 September 2020].

Kommersant, 2020. “В России обнаружили коронавирус у гражданина Италии”, Kommersant.ru, 5 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4277083 [diakses 11 September 2020].

Litvinenko, Y., 2020. “Первый россиянин заразился коронавирусом”, Vedomosti, 17 February [daring]. dalam https://www.vedomosti.ru/society/articles/2020/02/17/823194-rossiyanin [diakses 10 September 2020].

Luxmoore, M., 2020. “Russian Doctor Who Criticized Government’s COVID-19 Response Detained”, RFE/RL, 3 April [daring]. dalam https://www.rferl.org/a/head-of-russian-doctors-union-arrested-on-trip-to-equip-provincial-hospitals-battling-virus/30527912.html [diakses 12 September 2020].

Makarychev, A., 2020. “From a State of Exception to Policy Legitimation: The Politics of COVID-19 in Russia, Belarus, and Georgia (Part 1 of 3)”, PONARS Eurasia, 10 Juni [daring]. dalam http://www.ponarseurasia.org/article/state-exception-policy-legitimation-part-1 [diakses 1 September 2020].

Meduza, 2020a. “Six new coronavirus cases confirmed in Russia. They’re all mild and linked to Italy”, 6 Maret [daring]. dalam https://meduza.io/en/news/2020/03/06/six-new-coronavirus-cases-confirmed-in-russia-they-re-all-mild-and-linked-to-italy [diakses 11 September 2020].

Meduza, 2020b. “Russian doctors’ union spokesman detained and drafted into army”, 13 Juli [daring]. dalam https://meduza.io/en/news/2020/07/13/russian-doctors-union-spokesman-detained-and-drafted-into-army [diakses 12 September 2020].

Meyerowitz-Katz, G., 2020. “We have no idea if the Russian Covid vaccine is safe or effective”, The Guardian, 12 Agustus [daring]. dalam https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/aug/12/we-have-no-idea-if-the-russian-covid-vaccine-is-safe-or-effective [diakses 10 September 2020].

RT, 2020a. “Almost half of Russians say they don’t want to be vaccinated against Covid-19 & 43% believe dangers of coronavirus are exaggerated”, 11 September [daring]. dalam https://www.rt.com/russia/500478-russians-not-want-vaccination/ [diakses 13 September 2020].

RT, 2020b. “Survey suggests half of Russian doctors will refuse to take rapidly created Covid-19 vaccine – developer says fears unfounded”, 14 Agustus [daring]. dalam https://www.rt.com/russia/498011-russian-doctors-refuse-taking-covid-vaccine/ [diakses 13 September 2020].

RT, 2020c. “Russian health minister says Western criticism of Covid-19 vaccine is down to commercial competition, as Israel express interest”, 12 Agustus [daring]. dalam https://www.rt.com/russia/497811-russia-coronavirus-vaccine-western-criticism/ [diakses 13 September 2020].

RT, 2020d. “Could COVID-19 be milder than we thought?”, RT Youtube with Polly Boiko, 6 May [daring]. dalam https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YcdPAEk6Rnc&feature=youtu.be [diakses 10 Mei 2020].

Sauer, P. dan Gershkovich, E., 2020. “Russia Is Boasting About Low Coronavirus Deaths. The Numbers Are Deceiving”, The Moscow Times, 14 Mei [daring]. dalam https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2020/05/08/russia-is-boasting-about-low-coronavirus-deaths-the-numbers-are-deceiving-a70220 [diakses 12 Agustus 2020].

Smyth, R., 2020. “How the Opportunist in the Kremlin Took Advantage of Coronavirus”, The Globe Post, 24 Maret [daring]. dalam https://theglobepost.com/2020/03/24/putin-coronavirus/ [diakses 4 September 2020].

Snegovaya, M., 2020. “Putin’s Response to the Coronavirus: Politics, Economics, and the Pandemic”, The Center for European Policy Analysis, 9 April [daring]. dalam https://www.cepa.org/putins-response-to-coronavirus [diakses 2 September 2020].

TASS, 2020a. “Russia’s first vaccine against novel coronavirus is ready - first deputy defense minister”, 21 Juli [daring]. dalam https://tass.com/russia/1180629 [diakses 12 September 2020].

TASS, 2020b. “Russian watchdog tightens checks on borders in view of coronavirus threat”, 24 Januari [daring]. dalam https://tass.com/society/1112601 [diakses 12 September 2020].

TASS, 2020c. “First two persons infected with coronavirus identified in Russia”, 31 Januari [daring]. dalam https://tass.com/society/1115101 [diakses 12 September 2020].

TASS, 2020d. “COVID-19 vaccine shipped to all Russian regions to be delivered on September 14”, 12 September [daring]. dalam https://tass.com/society/1200101 [diakses 13 September 2020].

The Moscow Times, 2020a. “Putin’s Trust Rating Falls to New Low Amid Far East Protests”, 29 Juli [daring]. dalam https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2020/07/29/putins-trust-rating-falls-to-new-low-amid-far-east-protests-a71012 [diakses 12 September 2020].

The Moscow Times, 2020b. “TV Doctor to Head Russia’s Coronavirus Information Center”, 15 April [daring]. dalam https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2020/04/15/tv-doctor-to-head-russias-coronavirus-information-center-a70001 [diakses 10 September 2020].

Twigg, J., 2020a. “Russia’s Not Ready for Coronavirus”, Think Global Health, 6 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.thinkglobalhealth.org/article/russias-not-ready-coronavirus [diakses 3 September 2020].

Twigg, J., 2020b. “What Lies Behind Russia’s Coronavirus Containment Effort”, The Russia File – Kennan Institute, 24 Maret [daring]. dalam https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/what-lies-behind-russias-coronavirus-containment-effort [diakses 3 September 2020].


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Global & Strategis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Global Strategis

Ruang Cakra Buana Catur Matra
C102 Gedung C FISIP Universitas Airlangga
Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam Selatan, Surabaya 60286
jgs@journal.unair.ac.id

 

web
statistics 

Creative Commons License
Global Strategis journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


In collaboration with:

 

Indexed by: