Interpretation of democracy, pluralism and tolerance among the young activists of Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama
Anarchism and other forms of violence committed by religious groups and mass organizations are still very common in Indonesia. There have been violations of human rights, religious freedom and civil liberties, which are essential pillars of democracy. Indonesia, as a country that adheres to religious freedom regards all forms of intolerance as violations of democracy. This study described and explored the views of young cadres of Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) in Malang, East Java, about democracy, pluralism and tolerance. This research intended to unravel some of the issues of how young generations of Muhammadiyah and NU understand democracy, pluralism and tolerance and if their views are associated with their social construction. This study employed qualitative methods using interviews and direct observations to collect the data. The results of this study showed there were differences in the patterns between the younger generation and the older generation of Muhammadiyah. The members of Muhammadiyah recognized that the young cadres of Muhammadiyah tended to act more violently towards intolerant mass organizations compared to their senior (old cadre) generation. The senior cadres, such as the Muhammadiyah Youth, were more likely to be calm when responding to the presence of radical organizations. The senior cadres of Muhammadiyah tended to be open-minded with the community organizations that are perceived by the public to be a radical mass organization, which is fundamental in addressing the presence of radical organizations. This view indicated by the absence sense of precariousness or a situation that is considered to be very threatening to religious and national life while still in the corridor of diversity. On the other hand, the younger generation of Nahdlatul Ulama showed a different pattern, revealing that their seniors tended to be harsher in responding to radical organizations and supporting mass organizations.
Sephard W (1987) Fundamentalism Christian and Islamic. Religion 17:355-378.
Schumpeter JA (1947) Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper.
Schmitter P & Karl TL (1991) What democracy is… and is not. Journal of Democracy 2 (3):75-88.
Silberman I, Higgins ET, & Dweck CS (2005) Religion and world change: Violence and terrorism versus peace. Journal of Social Issues 61 (4):761-784.
Sopyan Y (2015) Menyoal kebebasan beragama dan penodaan agama di Indonesia. Jurnal Cita Hukum 2 (2):95-212.
Sparringa D (2006) Daniel Sparringa dan Ignas Kleden, Konsep Demokrasi, Modul 00. Jakarta:Komunitas Indonesia untuk Demokrasi.
Stace WT (1950) What Are our Values?: Values in General, Democratic Values and Why Do We Fail. Lincon: The University of Nebraska.
Sulistyo H (2002) Electoral Politics in Indonesia: A Hard Way to Democracy. Singapore: FES.
Susilowati I, Yunus NR, & Sholeh M (2019) Politics of identity on great 212’s reunion. Dauliyah 4 (1).
Ummah SC (2012) Akar radikalisme Islam di Indonesia. Humanika (12).
Volpi F (2004) Pseudo-democracy in the muslimworld. Third World Quarterly 25 (6):1.061-1.078.
Wahid A & Taylor H (2008) A tradition of tolerance in Indonesia offers hope. Foreign Service Journal (April 2008).
Wardani NAK (2019) Peran pimpinan cabang gerakan pemuda ansor sidoarjo dalam meningkatkan nasionalisme untuk menangkal radikalisme. Kajian Moral dan Kewarganegaraan 7 (1):301-315.
Woodward MR (2001) Indonesia, Islam, and the prospect for democracy. SAIS Review 2 (2):29-3.
Zain ZFS (2007) Pandangan Muhammadiyah terhadap Pluralitas Agama. Thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.
Zuhdi MH (2010) Fundamentalisme dan upaya deradikalisasi pemaknaan Al-Qur’an dan Hadis. Religia 13 (1):81-102.
Copyright of this journal is possession of Editorial Board and Journal Manager, by the knowledge of the author, while the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.
The formal legal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA), implies that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form (cannot be modified).
Every publication (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other than the aims mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.