Examining factors affecting the failure of Khofifah Indar Parawansa in East Java gubernatorial elections

Wahidah Zein Br Siregar

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/mkp.V34I12021.23-36
Abstract views = 346 times | downloads = 243 times

Abstract


Statistics consistently show that women in executive political leadership positions are much lower than men at a global level. Institutional, socio-economic, and socio-cultural factors influence this condition. Some studies also identified that media considered as an essential factor for women’s involvement in politics. This paper examines factors contributing to the failure of Khofifah Indar Parawansa in East Java gubernatorial elections and whether or not gender is a matter in affecting the failure. This research analyzed kompas.com on how media reports the process of exploring this issue, how it frames the factors and the result of the 2008 and 2013. Seventy-nine news reports from online newspapers, 27 from the 2008 election and 52 from the 2013 election, were analyzed. Researchers traced these articles using thematic textual analysis to identify factors inhibiting Khofifah’s participation in the elections. The media reported that political, socio-economic, and socio-cultural aspects inhibited her success in the elections. Interestingly, the media emphasizes the political aspect as the most significant factor in her failures. It implies that the media provides balanced and fair information on female candidates.


Keywords


women; gender; elections; politic; media

Full Text:

PDF

References


Azmi KSA & Zainudin R (2020) Money in politics: a recipe for corruption in Malaysia. Journal of Financial Crime. https://doi.org/10.1108/jfc-07-2020-0147.

Adcock C (2010) The politician, the wife, the citizen, and her Newspaper. Feminist Media Studies 10 (2):135-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680771003672254.

Aluko MAO (2002) The institutionalization of corruption and its impact on political culture and behaviour in Nigeria. Nordic Journal of African Studies 11 (3):393-402.

Aripurnami S (1996) A Feminist Comment on the Sinetron Presentation of Indonesia Women. In: Sears LJ (ed). Fantasizing Feminine in Indonesia. Durham: Duke University Press.

Aritonang DR (2014) Ini 97 perempuan anggota DPR periode 2014-2019, Kompas.com, 14 May 2014. [Accessed 18 November 2017]. http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2014/05/14/2159364/Ini.97.Perempuan.Anggota.DPR.Periode.2014-2019.

Aspinall E (2005) Elections and the normalization of politics in Indonesia. South East Asia Research 13 (2):117-156. https://doi.org/10.5367/0000000054604515.

Barton G (2014) The Gülen movement, Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama: Progressive Islamic thought, religious philanthropy and civil society in Turkey and Indonesia. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 25 (3):287-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2014.916124.

Dabbous Y & Ladley A (2010) A spine of steel and a heart of gold: Newspaper coverage of the first female speaker of the house. Journal of Gender Studies 19 (2):181-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589231003695971.

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Jawa Timur (2014) Buku Performance Target Kinerja Visi Misi Anggota DPRD Provinsi Jawa Timur Periode 2014-2019. Surabaya: Sekretariat Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Provinsi Jawa Timur.

Ette M (2017) Where are the women? Evaluating visibility of Nigerian female politicians in news media space. Gender, Place & Culture 24 (10):1480-1497. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2017.1387104.

Fealy G & Bush R (2014) The political decline of traditional Ulama in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Social Science 42 (5):536-560. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685314-04205004.

Febriansyah M, Ismail MT, & Noor NM (2020) Competing not complementing: KPU, Bawaslu, and the dynamic of election monitoring in Pemilu 2019. Asian Journal of Political Science 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02185377.2020.1781670.

Fountaine S (2017) What’s not to like? A qualitative study of young women politicians’ self-framing on Twitter. Journal of Public Relations Research 29 (5):219-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/1062726X.2017.1388239.

Garcia-Blanco I & Wahl-Jorgensen K (2012) The discursive construction of women politicians in the European press. Feminist Media Studies 12 (3):422-441. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2011.615636.

Hassim S (2009) Perserve Consequences? The Impact of Quotas for Women on Democratization in Africa. In: Shapiro I et al. (eds). Political Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ibrahim AHH (2018) Effect of public participation to improve the Election Commission (KPU) performance in Ternate City mayor election. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 7 (1):1-7.

Ishomuddin, Abidah L, Kartono R, & Wahyudi (2019) Culture and political understanding on Muslimat Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) in East Java. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education 6 (8):71-82.

Jati WR (2012) Ulama dan pesantren dalam dinamika politik dan kultur Nahdlatul Ulama. Ulul Albab 13 (1):95-111. https://doi.org/10.18860/ua.v0i0.2377.

Karto K & Khisni A (2020) Islamic views on money politic practices in the constitutional election of 2019. Law Development Journal 2 (2):155-162.

Kompas.com (2008a) Golput menang di Pilkada Jatim, 23 July 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018].https://edukasi.kompas.com/read/2008/07/23/20125057/golput.menang.di.pilkada.jatim.

Kompas.com (2008b) Gus Mus: Jatim akan dipimpin orang NU, 21 April 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/04/21/00030971/gus.mus.jatim.akan.dipimp inorang.nu.

Kompas.com (2008c) Hasyim minta Markus bantu Khofifah-Mudjiono, 6 June 2008. [Accessed 9 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/06/06/2031535/hasyim.minta.markus.bantu.khofifah-mudjiono.

Kompas.com (2008d) Ibu-ibu pendukung Kaji demo KPU Jatim, 5 November 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018]. https://internasional.kompas.com/read/2008/11/05/15512019/ibu-ibu.penduku ng.kaji.demo.kpu.jatim.

Kompas.com (2008e) Khofifah, perempuan lembut setangguh lelaki, 4 July 2008. [Accessed 11 May 2008]. https://edukasi.kompas.com/read/2008/07/04/15070753/khofifah.perempuan.lembut.setangguh.lelaki.

Kompas.com (2008f) “Madu” dan “Racun” dalam Pilkada Jatim, 3 December 2008. [Accessed 9 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/12/03/12393896/quotmaduquot.dan.qu otracunquot.dalam.pilkada.jatim.

Kompas.com (2008g) Masa tenang, iklan cagub jalan terus, 3 November 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018]. https://olahraga.kompas.com/read/2008/11/03/10070744/masa.tenang.iklan.cagub.ja lan.terus.

Kompas.com (2008h) MK bacakan putusan sengketa Pilgub Jatim, 2 December 2008. [Accessed 9 May 2018]. https://olahraga.kompas.com/read/2008/12/02/0844145/mk.bacakan.putusan.sengketa.pilgub.jatim.

Kompas.com (2008i) “Nahdliyin” yang selalu diperebutkan, 18 September 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018].https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/09/18/06124413/nahdliyin.yang.selalu.diperebutkan.

Kompas.com (2008j) Pendukung Kaji: MK memiliki nurani, 2 December 2008. [Accessed 11 May 2018]. https://news.kompas.com/read/2008/12/02/22054681/pendukung.kaji.mk.memiliki.nurani.

Kompas.com (2008k) PKB Muhaimin dukung pasangan Karsa, Kompas.com, 16 October 2008. [Accessed 10 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/10/16/19291115/pkb.mu haimin.dukung.pasangan.karsa.

Kompas.com (2008l) Selebaran gelap marak di Kediri, 21 July 2008. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/07/21/18532568/selebaran.gelap.marak.di.kediri.

Kompas.com (2013a) Akil ditangkap KPK, sidang sengketa Pilkada jalan terus, 3 October 2013. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/10/03/1634380/Akil.Ditangkap.KPK.Sidang.Sengketa.Pilkada.Jalan.Terus.

Kompas.com (2013b) Doakan Khofifah, massa perempuan istigasah di depan KPU, 12 July 2013. [Accessed 18 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/07/12/1934436/Doakan.Khofifah.Massa.Perempuan.Istigasah.di.Depan.KPU.

Kompas.com (2013c) Hasyim Muzadi: Soal Pilgub Jatim, pastikan tak ada suap di MK, 7 October 2013. [Accessed 16 May 2018]. https://lifestyle.kompas.com/read/2013/10/07/1631500/Hasyim.Muzadi.Soal.Pilgub.Jatim.Pastikan.Tak.Ada.Suap.di.MK.

Kompas.com (2013d) Inilah nomor urut pasangan Cagub Jatim, 15 July 2013. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/07/15/1916165/Inilah.Nomor.Urut.Pasangan .Cagub.Jatim.

Kompas.com (2013e) Inilah polemik dukungan ganda Partai Gurem di Pilgub Jatim, 2 June 2013. [Accessed 15 May 2018]. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/06/02/14595442/inilah.polemik.dukungan.ganda.partai.gurem.di.pilgub.jatim.

Kompas.com (2013f) Ketua DPP Partai Kedaulatan “ngaku” dikejar iming-iming uang untuk alihkan dukungan, 27 July 2013. [Accessed 14 May 2018]. https://tekno.kompas.com/read /2013/07/27/0255039/Ketua.DPP.Partai.Kedaulatan.Ngaku.Dikejar.Iming-iming.Uang.untuk.Alihkan.Dukungan.

Kompas.com (2013g) Khofifah Indar Parawansa tak lolos jadi Cagub Jatim, 15 July 2013. [Accessed 12 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/07/15/0341242/Khofifah.Indar.Para wansa.Tak.Lolos.Jadi.Cagub.Jatim.

Kompas.com (2013h) Mayoritas pasien RSU di Surabaya “Golput”, 29 August 2013. [Accessed 20 May 2018]. https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2013/08/29/1738067/Mayoritas.Pasien.RSU.di.Surabaya.Golput.

Kompas.com (2013i) Muhaimin: Hanya Khofifah yang siap melawan Soekarwo, 22 August 2013. [Accessed 17 May 2018]. https://properti.kompas.com/read/2013/08/22/1605209/Muhaimin.Hanya.Khofifah.yang.Siap.Melawan.Soekarwo.

Kompas.com (2013j) Pasangan Karsa curi start kampanye? 10 April 2013. [Accessed 17 May 2018]. https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2013/04/10/16432211/Pasangan.Karsa.Curi.Start.Ka mpanye.

Kompas.com (2013k) Pamor dalam identitas kultural di Pilgub Jatim, 19 August 2013. [Accessed 14 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/08/19/1501113/Pamor.dalam.Identi tas.Kultural.di.Pilgub.Jatim.

Kompas.com (2013l) Peluang Khofifah maju di Pilgub Jatim terbuka, 31 July 2013. [Accessed 12 May 2018]. https://lifestyle.kompas.com/read/2013/07/31/1506552/Peluang.Khofifah.Maju.di.Pilgub.Jatim.Terbuka.

Kompas.com (2013m) Pendukung desak Khofifah gugat hasil Pilgub Jatim ke MK, 10 September 2013. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://properti.kompas.com/read/2013/09/10/1600107/Pen dukung.Desak.Khofifah.Gugat.Hasil.Pilgub.Jatim.ke.MK.

Kompas.com (2013n) Pengamat: Khofifah-Herman akan tetap diganjal, 16 August 2013. [Accessed 16 May 2018]. https://travel.kompas.com/read/2013/08/16/2118452/Pengamat.Khofifah-He rman.Akan.Tetap.Diganjal.

Kompas.com (2013o) Sayembara Rp 2 juta bagi penangkap pelaku politik uang, 28 August 2013. [Accessed 14 May 2018]. https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2013/08/28/1535195/Sayembara.Rp.2.Juta.bagi.Penangkap.Pelaku.Politik.Uang.

Kompas.com (2013p) Soal dukungan ganda parpol, KPU Jatim sudah minta masukan Bawaslu. 15 July 2013. [Accessed 18 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/07/15/0508096/Soal.Dukungan.Ganda.Parpol.KPU.Jatim.Sudah.Minta.Masukan.Bawaslu.

Kompas.com (2013q) Soekarwo dan Khofifah hadiri sidang putusan Pilgub Jatim di MK, 7 October 2013. [Accessed 14 May 2018]. https://sains.kompas.com/read/2013/10/07/1555442/Soekar wo.dan.Khofifah.Hadiri.Sidang.Putusan.Pilgub.Jatim.di.MK.

Kompas.com (2013r) Tokoh Madura Se-Indonesia bahas Pilgub Jatim, 16 August 2013. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/08/16/1651336/Tokoh.Madura.Se-In donesia.Bahas.Pilgub.Jatim.

Kompas.com (2013s) Tolak Khofifah, Dewan Syuro PKB Dukung Soekarwo, 6 Agustus 2013. [Accessed 13 May 2018]. https://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2013/08/06/2056393/To lak.Khofifah.Dewan.Syuro.PKB.Dukung.Soekarwo.

Kompas.com (2019a) Pencaharian “Pemilihan Gubernur Jatim 2008.” [Accessed 9 October 2019], https://search.kompas.com/search/?q=pemilihan+gubernur+jatim+2008&submit=Submit.

Kompas.com (2019b) Pencaharian “Pemilihan Gubernur Jatim 2013.” [Accessed 9 October 2019], https://search.kompas.com/search/?q=pemilihan+gubernur+jatim+2013&submit=Submit.

Lachover E (2012) Just being a woman isn’t enough any more. Feminist Media Studies 12 (3):442-458. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2011.615639.

Leigh M (2006) Factors affecting female representation in state legislatures. [Accessed 5 August 2017]. https://pol.illinoisstate.edu/downloads/conferences/2006/Leigh07.pdf.

Lovenduski J (2005) Feminizing Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Matland RE (2005) Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems. In: Ballington J & Karam A (eds). Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: International IDEA.

McGregor SC, Lawrence RG, & Cardona A (2017) Personalization, gender, and social media: Gubernatorial candidates’ social media strategies. Information, Communication & Society 20 (2):264-283. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1167228.

Mokodompis S, Bukido R, Salim DP, & Makka MM (2018) Money politic in elections: Islamic law perspective. Jurnal Ilmiah Al-Syir’ah 16 (2):126-137. https://doi.org/10.30984/jis.v16i2.708.

Mukrimin M (2013) The influence of mass media in political change in Indonesia. Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik 3 (2):57-67. https://doi.org/10.14710/politika.3.2.2012.57-67.

O’Brien A (2014) It’s a man’s world: A qualitative study of the (non) mediation of women and politics on prime time during the 2011 General Election. Irish Political Studies 29 (4):505-521. https://doi.org/10.1080/07907184.2014.922960.

O’Neill D, Savigny H, & Cann V (2016) Women politicians in the UK press: Not seen and not heard? Feminist Media Studies 16 (2):293-307. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1092458.

Prasetyo A (2016) Sejarah Kompas.com. [Accessed 20 May 2018]. http://repository.umy.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/2500/06%20BAB%20II.pdf?sequence=6&isAllowed.

Pribadi Y (2013) Religious networks in Madura: Pesantren, Nahdlatul Ulama, and Kiai as the core of santri culture. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies 51 (1):1-32. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2013.511.1-32.

Rose R & Mishler W (2009) How do electors respond to an “unfair” election? The experience of Russians. Post-Soviet Affairs 25 (2):118-136. https://doi.org/10.2747/1060-586x.24.2.118.

Rusyda V (2015) Peran Kyai yang mempengaruhi pilihan politik masyarakat terhadap perekonomian daerah: Suatu kajian ekonomi politik. Thesis, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta.

Shvedova N (2005) Obstacles to Women’s Participation in Parliament. In: Ballington J & Karam A (eds). Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: International IDEA.

Street J (2001) Mass Media, Politics and Democracy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Sulistyani HD (2011) The Construction of Women in Contemporary Indonesian Women’s Cinema. In: Sen K & Hill DT. Politics and the Media in the Twenty-First Century Indonesia: Decade of Democracy. Abingdon: Routledge.

Ufen A (2008) Political party and party system institutionalization in Southeast Asia: Lessons for democratic consolidation in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. The Pacific Review 21 (3):327–350. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512740802134174.

van Acker E (2003) Media representations of women politicians in Australia and New Zealand: High expectations, hostility or stardom. Policy and Society 22 (1):116-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1449-4035(03)70016-2.

Verge T & Pastor R (2018) Women’s political firsts and symbolic representation. Journal of Women. Politics & Policy 39 (1):26-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/1554477X.2016.1268878.

Wijayanto (2018) Ambiguous neutrality: Kompas’ position amid the wave of political polarization during the presidential election 2014. Jurnal Masyarakat & Budaya 20 (2):175-190. https://doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v20i2.651.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik

Indexing by:

     

     

       

View MKP Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License