Pendidikan Domestik: Konstruksi Peran Perempuan Indian Amerika Inferior Dalam Karya-Karya Zitkala-Sa, The School Days of an Indian Girl dan The Wide Spread Enigma of Blue Star Woman

Olga Anneke Rorintulus

Abstract views = 136 times | downloads = 82 times



Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan konstruksi peran perempuan Indian Amerika inferior dalam masyarakat kulit putih  melalui pendidikan domestik bagi anak-anak perempuan Indian Amerika di akhir abad ke-19  sampai awal abad ke-20 seperti terefleksi dalam karya sastra Zitkala-Sa, The School Days of an Indian Girl and The Widespread Enigma of Blue Start Woman. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang mengumpulkan data-data kualitatif melalui tehnik penelitian kepustakaan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan sastra feminisme yang mengaplikasikan teori feminisme liberal tentang gender. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan domestik bagi anak-anak perempuan Indian Amerika merupakan suatu konstruksi gender yang menanamkan budaya patriarki masyarakat kulit putih yang memposisikan peran perepuan Indian Amerika inferior dalam masyarakat kulit putih Amerika di akhir abad ke-19 sampai awal abad ke-20 seperti terefleksi dalam karya-karya Zitkala-Sa.


gender, perempuan Indian Amerika, pendidikan domestik, inferior

Full Text:



Daftar Pustaka

Bartens, H. 2001. Literary Theory. New York: Routledge

Bataille, G.M dan Lisa, L. 2001. Native American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. New York London: Routledge.

Bonvillain, N. 2007. Women and Men: Cultural Constructs of Gender. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Burt, R. 2010. ‘”Death Beneath this Semblance of Civilization”: Reading Zitkala-Sa and the Imperial Imagination of the Romantic Revival’. The Arizona Quarterly 66 (2): 59-88.

Coleman, M. C. 1990. ‘Motivation of Indian Children at Missionary and U.S. Government Schools.’ The Magazine of Western History 40 (1): 30-45.

Conley, P.A. 2013. Stories, Traces of Discourse, and the Tease of Presence: Gertrude Simmons Bonnin as Orator and Indigenous Activist, Disertasi. Wisconsin : University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Dejong, D. 2007. ‘Unless They are Kept Alive: Federal Indian Schools and Student Health 1878-1918.’ American Indian Quarterly 31 (2) : 256-282.

Devens, C. 1992. ‘If We Get the Girl, We Get the Race: Missionary Education of Native American Girls.’ Journal of World History 3 (2): 219-237.

Ellinghaus, K. 2006. ‘Indigenous Assimilation and Absorption in the United States and Australia.’Pacific Historical Review 75 (4) 563-585.

Emmerich, L. E. 1991. ‘Right in the Midst of My Own People: Native American Women and the Field Matron Program.’ American Indian Quarterly 15 ( 2) :201-216.

Enoch, J. 2002. “Resisting the script of Indian education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School”. College English 65 (2) 117-140.

Havighurst, R.J. 1957. ‘Education among American Indians: Individual and Cultural Aspects.’ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 311:105-115.

Hayes, H.J. 1997. Indian Women, Domesticity, and Liberal State Formation: The gendered Dimension of Indian Policy Reform During The Assimilation and Allotment Eras, Thesis. Arizona: The University of Arizona.

Holm, Tom. 2005. The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans & Whites in the Progressive Era.USA: University of Texas Press.

Hollrah, P.E.M. 2004. “The Old Lady Trill, the Victory Yell”: The Power of Women in Native American Literature. New York & London: Routledge

Iverson, Peter. 1998. “We Are Still Here” American Indians in the Twentieth Century. Illinois : Harland Davidson Inc.

Jacobs, M.D. 2007. ‘Working on the Domestic Frontier: American Indian Domestic Servants.’ Frontiers 28 (1): 165 -299.

Kunce, C. 2006. ‘Fire of Eden: Zitkala-Śa’s Bitter Apple'. Studies In American Indian Literatures18 (1) : 73-82.

Kerber, L.K. dan Mathews J.D. 1982. Women’s America refocusing The Past. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lengermann, P.M. dan Brantley,J.N. 2011. ‘Teori Feminisme Kontemporer’, dalam G. Ritzer & D.J. Goodman (eds.), Teori Sosiologi. Bantul: Kreasi Wacana.

Nabokov, P.1991. Native American Testimony. USA:Penguin Group.

Pilcher, J. dan Whelehan, I. 2008. 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. London: SAGE Publications.

Perdue, T. 2001. Sifters: Native American Women’s Lives.New York: Oxford University Press.

Rothman, S.M. 1983. ‘The New Technology and Women’s Work,’ dalam T.R. Frazier (ed.), The Private Side of American History Since 1865. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Reyhner, J. dan Eder, J. 2004. American Indian Education: A History. USA: University of Oklahoma Press.

Simonsen, J.E. 2006. Making Home Work: Domesticity and Native American Assimilation in the American West 1860-1919. USA: The University of North Caroline Press.

Spack, R.1997. ‘Re-visioning Sioux Women: Zitkala-Sa’s Revolutionary American Indian Stories.’ Legacy 14 (1):25-42.

Stanley,S.K.1994. ‘Claiming a Native American Identity: Zitkala_sa and Autobiographical Strategies.” Pacific Coast Philology 29 (1) :64-69.

Watras, J. 2004. ‘Progressive Education and Native American Schools, 1929-1950.’ Educational Foundation 18 (3 / 4):81-105.

Young, M.E. 1982. ‘Women, Civilization, and Indian Question,’ dalam L.Kerber dan Jane D. Mathews ( ed), Women’s America : Refocusing the Past. New York : Oxford University Press,

Zitkala-Sa. 1921. American Indian Stories.Washington: Hayworth Publishing House.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Olga Anneke Rorintulus




Free counters!

View Mozaik Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.