TTC Repeats Variation of Mycobacterium leprae Isolates for Analysis of Leprosy Transmission in Leprosy Endemic Area in East Java, INDONESIA
East Java province still has some pocket of leprosy endemic areas. In order to solve the problem, molecular typing will make it feasible to study the transmission pattern of Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy endemic area. The present study is to analyze the presence of M.leprae DNA in the environment and to study variation number of TTC repeats and their distribution. Poteran Island is located in Madura, East Java and was chosen because this island has a high prevalence of leprosy and remains stable for the last five years. All samples were analyzed by PCR and the numbers of TTC repeats were confirmed by direct sequencing. Of all collected samples, 26.4% isolates of water resources (24); 61.9% nasal swabs (26); and 35.3% skin tissues (24) are positives. No statistically difference in the pattern distribution of TTC repeats between skin tissues of patients and nasal swab of households contact (p=0.594); also distribution of TTC repeats between skin tissues of leprosy patients and those of water resources (p=0.441); and distribution of TTC repeats between nasal swab of households contact with water resources (p=0.906). It means that the transmission of M.leprae in leprosy endemic area has closely related in 3 aspects: agent, host & environment.
World Health Organization. 2006. WHO Expert Committee on
Leprosy. 12th ed. WHO Technical Report Series . No. 874.
Dinas Kesehatan Jawa Timur. 2006. Laporan Kusta Tahun 2005. Dinkes Jatim. Surabaya.
Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sumenep. 2006. Laporan Kusta Tahun 2005. Dinkes Kabupaten Sumenep.
Rees, RJW; Young, DB. 1994. The Microbiology of Leprosy. In:
Hastings,RC. Leprosy. ChurchilLivingstone. Edinburg. p 47–98.
Fine, P.E.M.1982. Leprosy:the epidemiology of a slow bacterium. Epidemiol. Rev. 4:161–187.
Young, SK; Taylor, GM; Jain, S; Suneetha, LM; Sunetha, S;
Lockwood, DNJ and Young, DB. 2004. Microsatellite Mapping
Mycobacterium leprae Population in Infected Humans. J. Clin.
Microbiol. 42: 4931–4936.
Matsuoka, M; Zhang, L; Budiawan, T; Saeki, K and Izumi, S.
Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae on the Basis of the
Polymorphism of TTC Repeats for Analysis of Transmission. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42(2): 741–745.
Matsuoka, M; Zhang, L; Morris, MF; Legua, P and Wiens, C.
Polymorphism in the rpoT gene in Mycobacterium leprae
Isolates Obtained from Latin American Countries and Its Possible Correlation with the Spread of Leprosy. FEMS. Microbiol. Letters.
Shin, YC; Lee, H; Walsh, GP; Kim, JD. and Cho, SN. 2000. Variable of TTC Repeats in Mycobacterium leprae DNA from Leprosy Patients and Use in Strain Differentiation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38 (12): 537–544.
Truman, R; Fontes, AB; Miranda, AB; Suffys, P. and Gillis, T.
Genotypic Variation and Stability of Four Variable-Number
Tandem Repeats and Their Suitability for Discriminating Strain of
Mycobacterium leprae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 2558–2565.
Matsuoka, M; Izumi, S; Budiawan T; Nakata, N. and Saeki, K. 1999, Mycobacterium leprae DNA ini Daily Using as a Possible Source of Leprosy Infection. Indian Journal of Leprosy. 71 (1) 61–67.
Izumi, I; Budiawan, T; Saeki, K; Matsuoka, M; Kawatsu K.1999. An Epidemiological Study On Mycobacterium leprae Infection and Prevalence of Leprosy in Endemic Villages by Molecular Biologila Technique. Indian J lepr. Vol.71(1) 37–43.
QIAGEN. 2005. QIAprep ® Miniprep Handbook. USA.
Donoghue H.D.; Holton J. and Spigelman M. 2002. PCR primers that can detect low levels of Mycobacterium leprae DNA. J. Med. Microbiol. Vol 50. p.177–182.
Amersham Biosciences. 2002. Long Read Tower DNA Sequencing Ver.3.01 (Manual). USA
Matsuoka, M; Maeda, S; Kai, M; Nakata, N; Chae, GT, Gillis, TP; Kobayashi, K; Izumi, S; Kashiwabara, Y. 2000. Mycobacterium leprae Typing by Genomic Diversity and Global Distribution of Genotypes. Int. J. Lepr. 68(2): 122–128.
Monot, H; Honore, N; Garnier, T; Araoz, R; Coppee, JY; Lacroix, C; Sow, S; Spencer, JS; Truman, RW; Williams, DL; Gelber, R; Virmond, M; Flageul, B; Cho, SN; Ji, B; Mondolfi, AP; Convit, J; Young, S; Fine, PE; Rasolofo, V; Brennan, PJ. and Cole, ST. 2005. On the Origin of Leprosy. Science. 308: 1040–1042.
Kazda, J. 1981. Occurance of Non-cultivable Acid-fast Bacilli in the Environment and their Relationship to Mycobacterium leprae. Lepr. Rev. Suppl 1: 85–91.
Cirillo, JD; Falkow, S; Tomkins, LS and Bermudez, LE. 1997.
Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with Environmental Amoebae Enhance Virulence. Infect. Immun. 65: 3759–3767.
Jadin, J.B. 1975. Amoebes limax: vecteurs possibles de Mycobacteries et de M. leprae. Acta Leprol. 59: 57–69.
Groathouse, NA; Rivoire, B; Kim, H; Lee, H; Cho, SN; Brennan, PJ. and Vissa, VD. 2004. Multiple Polymorphic Loci for Molecular Typing of Strains of Mycobacterium leprae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1666–1667.
The Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease (IJTID) is a scientific peer-reviewed journal freely available to be accessed, downloaded, and used for research. All articles published in the IJTID are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, which is under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so reasonably, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.