Association of Excessive Screen Time in Children with Language Delay During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
Background: Covid-19 pandemic and the associated of lockdown have confined children to their homes and have resulted in an exponential increase of screen use in children. The environment in which the child grows may either stimulate or inhibit their development in such a sensitive period. Language development of children starts early in infancy and surges in 2 years of life, updated knowledge about association of language delay with its aggravating risk factor, such as excessive screen time. Aim: scrutinize the association of increased risk of language delay in children under two years old with any screen time or screen time more than 1 hour in children 2-5 years old. Method: We make clinical question. We include studies from PubMed and Google Scholar on January 13th 2022. In the end, we have got three full reading articles. Result: Full reading article by Hauvel et al (2019), Varadarajan S et al (2021), and Collet M et al (2019) were choosen to discuss in this article review. Study by Hauvel et al (2019) and Varadarajan S et al (2021) describe that having screen time more than the recommendation from AAP would lead to delay language domain. Collet M et al (2019) found that children that had screen time before go to school and never discuss to their parents about what they are watching would have 6 time risk for develop primary language disorder. Conclusion: There is a correlation between excessive screen time in children and language delay.
Keywords: covid-19, children, language delay, pandemic, screen time
Maulana MS. Risk of language delay in toddlers with prolonged screen time: Evidence based case report. JECIES J Early Child Islam Educ Study. 2020; 01.
John JJ, Joseph R, David A, Bejoy A, George KV, George L. Association of screen time with parent-reported cognitive delay in preschool children of Kerala, India. BMC Pediatr. 2021; 21 (1).
Felix E, Silva V, Caetano M, Ribeiro MVV, Fidalgo TM, Rosa Neto F, et al. Excessive screen media use in preschoolers is associated with poor motor skills. Cyberpsychology Behav Soc Netw. 2020; 23 (6): 418–25.
Manipuspika YS. Phonological development of children with speech delay. Retorika J Ilmu Bhs. 2019; 5 (1): 12–22.
Simonović S, Hinić D. Excessive screen media exposure and language delay in the development of infants and toddlers: Three case reports. Serbian J Exp Clin Res. 2021.
Wooles N, Hoskison E, Swann J. Speech and language delay in children: A case to learn from. Br J Gen Pract. 2018; 68 (666): 47–8.
Sunderajan, Trisha; Kanhere S V. Speech and language delay in children: Prevalence and risk factors. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019; 8 (5).
Suparmiati, Aries; Ismail, Djauhar; Sitaresmi MN. Hubungan ibu bekerja pada keterlambatan bicara pada anak. Sari Pediatr. 2013; 14 (5).
Arizona P, Setiawati Y, Febriyana N, Kalalo RT. The epidemiology of pediatric mental disorders in child psychiatric outpatient clinic at Dr . Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2021.
Anderson DR, Subrahmanyam K. Digital screen media and cognitive development. Pediatrics. 2017; 140: 57–61.
van den Heuvel M, Ma J, Borkhoff CM, Koroshegyi C, H Dai DW, Parkin PC, et al. Mobile media device use is associated with expressive language delay in 18-month-old children. 2019; 40 (2).
Christakis DA, Benedikt Ramirez JS, Ferguson SM, Ravinder S, Ramirez JM. How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115 (40): 9851–8.
Lin HP, Chen KL, Chou W, Yuan KS, Yen SY, Chen YS, et al. Prolonged touch screen device usage is associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but not language delay, in toddlers. Infant Behav Dev. 2020; 58.
Hutton JS, Dudley J, Horowitz-Kraus T, Dewitt T, Holland SK. Associations between screen-based media use and brain white matter integrity in preschool-aged children. JAMA Pediatr. 2020; 174 (1): 1–10.
Zengin-Akkuş P, Çelen-Yoldaş T, Kurtipek G, Özmert EN. Speech delay in toddlers: Are they only “late talkers”? Turk J Pediatr. 2018; 60 (2): 165–72.
Agung J, Setiawati Y, Febryana N. Strength Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) profile of children with sensorineural hearing loss: A descriptive study. Int J Sci Adv. 2021; 2 (6): 6–11.
Arumugam CT, Said MAB, Farid NDBN. Screen-based media and young children: Review and recommendations. Malaysian Family Physician. Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. 2021; 16: 7–13.
Dwiyatna AA, Irwanto, Setiawati Y, Wardhani IL. The impact of child care on child development in daycare and at home. Pediatr i Med Rodz. 2020; 16 (3): 289–94.
Ponti M, Bélanger S, Grimes R, Heard J, Johnson M, Moreau E, et al. Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. Paediatrics and Child Health. Oxford University Press. 2017; 22: 461–77.
Setyanisa, Alma Rossabela; Setiawati Y, Fithriyah I. Relationship between parenting stress and risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in elementary school children. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2022; 16 (1).
Pedrotti BG, Mallmann MY, Almeida CRS, Marques FM, Vescovi G, Riter H da S, et al. Infants’ and toddlers’ digital media use and mothers’ mental health: A comparative study before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Infant Ment Health J. 2022; 43 (1): 24–35.
Nagata JM, Abdel Magid HS, Pettee Gabriel K. Screen time for children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Obesity. 2020; 28 (9): 1582–3.
Hawi NS, Rupert MS. Impact of e-discipline on children’s screen time. Cyberpsychology, Behav Soc Netw. 2015; 18 (6): 337–42.
Auxier B, Anderson M, Perrin A, Turner E. Parenting children in the age of screens. 2020; 28.
Aguilar-Farias N, Toledo-Vargas M, Miranda-Marquez S, Cortinez-O’ryan A, Cristi-Montero C, Rodriguez-Rodriguez F, et al. Sociodemographic predictors of changes in physical activity, screen time, and sleep among toddlers and preschoolers in chile during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18 (1): 1–13.
Bates LC, Zieff G, Stanford K, Moore JB, Kerr ZY, Hanson ED, et al. Covid-19 impact on behaviors across the 24-hour day in children and adolescents: Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Children. 2020; 7 (9).
Guan H, Okely AD, Aguilar-Farias N, del Pozo Cruz B, Draper CE, El Hamdouchi A, et al. Promoting healthy movement behaviours among children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal. 2020; 4 (6): 416–8.
Ardiyani IDYSY-TH. Education for parents of children with gadget addiction. J Berk Epidemiol. 2021; 9 (3): 221–30.
De Beaudrap P, Turyakira E, White LJ, Nabasumba C, Tumwebaze B, Muehlenbachs A, et al. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes in a Ugandan prospective cohort with intensive malaria screening and prompt treatment. Malar J. 2013; 12: 139.
Li C, Cheng G, Sha T, Cheng W, Yan Y. The relationships between screen use and health indicators among infants, toddlers, and preschoolers: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17 (19): 1–20.
McHarg G, Ribner AD, Devine RT, Hughes C. Screen time and executive function in toddlerhood: A longitudinal study. Front Psychol. 2020; 11.
Collet M, Gagnière B, Rousseau C, Chapron A, Fiquet L, Certain C. Primary language disorders were associated with screen exposure. Acta Paediatr Int J Paediatr. 2019; 108 (6): 1103–9.
Strouse GA, Troseth GL, O’Doherty KD, Saylor MM. Co-viewing supports toddlers’ word learning from contingent and noncontingent video. J Exp Child Psychol. 2018; 166: 310–26.
Copyright (c) 2022 Ulima Mazaya Ghaisani, Amalia Rasydini Salam
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
1. Copyright of this journal is possession of the Author, by the knowledge of the Editorial Board and Journal Manager, while the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.
2. The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
3. The articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA) license. Many research funding bodies prefer the CC BY-SA license because it allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials. Users are free to share (copy, distribute, and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution under this license, including for commercial purposes, as long as they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor.