Rinsing effect of 60% bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum wight) aqueous decoction in inhibiting the accumulation of dental plaque during fixed orthodontic treatment

Fitria Avriliyanti, Sri Suparwitri, Ananto Ali Alhasyimi

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v50.i1.p1-5
Abstract views = 1891 times | downloads = 1125 times


Background: Fixed orthodontic appliance patients have a high risk to increasing plaque accumulation in tooth surface due to the presence of fixed appliance components. Using mouthwash with antibacterial agent from herbal material can control dental plaque accumulation. Bay leaf (BL) contains active compounds such as essential oil, tannin and flavonoid that have been known as an antibacterial agent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction to the accumulation of dental plaque in fixed orthodontic appliance patients. Method: This research was an experimental clinical research with pretest and post-test control group design conducted on 20 subjects with age ranged between 18-25 years old. All subjects were undergoing the last stage (finishing) of fixed active orthodontic treatment. The subjects were instructed to rinse with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and 0.2% chlorhexidine as a control. Wash out period that needed between rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine was 7 days. Each mouthwash used routinely for 7 days with same duration and intensity. Plaque scoring was measured before and after each treatment using Orthodontic Plaque Index (OPI). Result: One-way Anova test showed that there was a significant difference in the plaque index before and after treatment between the group of rinsing with 60% of BL aqueous decoction and group of rinsing with chlorhexidine (p<0.05). Conclusion: Rinsing with 60% BL aqueous decoction can decrease the accumulation of dental plaque in fixed orthodontic appliance patients.


fixed ortodontic appliance; plaque accumulation; 60% of bay leaf aqueous decoction

Full Text:



Singh G. Fixed orthodontic appliances. Text book of ortodontics. 1st ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Publishers; 2007. p. 449.

Karadas M, Cantekin K, Celikoglu M. Effects of orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance on the caries experience of patients with high and low risk of caries. J of Dental Sciences 2011; 6: 195-99.

Lee HJ, Park HS, Kim KH, Kwon TY, Honge SH. Effect of garlic on bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Angle Orthod 2011; 81(5): 895–900.

Sukontapatipark W, El-Agraudi MA, Seliseth NJ, Thunold K, Selvig KA. Bacterial colonization associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. A scanning electron microscopy study. Eur J of Orthod 2001; 23(5): 475-84.

Al-Jewaira T, Suri S, Tompson BD. Predictors of adolescent

compliance with oral hygiene instructions during two-arch multibracket fixed orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod 2011; 81(3): 525-31.

Mehra T, Nanda RS, Sinha PK. Orthodontists’ assessment and management of patient compliance. Angle Orthod 1998; 68: 115–22.

Carranza FA, Newman MG. Clinical periodontology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2006. p. 76.

Camile SF, McIntosh L, McCullough MJ. Mouthwash. Aust Prescr 2009; 32: 162-4.

Fajriani, Andriani JN. Reduction of salivary Streptococcus mutans colonies in children after rinsing with 2.5% green tea solution. JDI 2014; 21(3): 79-84.

Eley BM, Manson JD. Periodontic. 5th edition. Saunders: Elsevier; 2004. p. 21-7, 209.

Alam MT, Parvez N, Sharma PK. FDA-Approved natural polymers for fast dissolving tablets. Journal of Pharmaceutics 2014; 952970: 1-6.

Sumono A, Wulan SDA. The use of bay leaf (Eugenia polyanthum Weight) in dentistry. Dent J (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) 2008; 41(3): 147-50.

Lestari IKA, Nazip K, Estuningsih S. Test of effectiveness of antibacterial of ethanol extract of loranthus of tea (Scurulla

atropurpurea BL danser) on the growth of Enterobacter sakazakii. International Conference on Food, Biological and Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand: 2014. p. 10-15.

Santos FA, Rao VSN . Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1.8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytotherapy Research 2000; 14: 240-4.

Friedman M, Henika PR and Mandrell RE. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. J Food Prot 2002; 65: 1545-60.

Marzouki H, Piras A, Marongiu B, Assunta R, Assunta M. Extraction and separation of volatile and fixed oils from berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2 Dessì 3. Molecules 2008; 13: 1702-11.

Ivanović J, Mišić D, Ristić M, Pešić O, Žižović I. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of bay (Laurus nobilis L.) – chemical composition and antibacterial activity. J Serb Chem Soc 2010; 75(3): 395–404.

Paschos E, Bucher K, Huth CK, Crispin A, Wichelhaus A, Dietel T. Is there a need for orthodontic plaque indices? Diagnostic accuracy of four plaque indices. Clin Oral Invest 2014; 18(4): 1351-8.

Beberhold K, Sachse-Kulp A, Schwestka-Polly R, Hornecker E, Ziebolz D. The orthodontic plaque index: an oral hygiene index for patients with multibracket appliances. Orthodontics 2012; 13(1): 94-9.

Ticha R, Bohmova H. Influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on the level of patient’s oral hygiene. Orthodoncie 2005;14(4): 29-34.

Heintze SD, Jost-Brinkmann PG, Finke C, Miethke RR. Oral health for the orthodontic patient. Illinois: Quintessenz Publishing Co, Inc; 1999. p. 39.

Fajriani, Andriani JN. Reduction of salivary Streptococcus mutans colonies in children after rinsing with 2,5% green tea solution. JDI2014; 21(3): 79-84.

Said CM, Hussein K. Determination of the chemical and genetic differences of laurus collected from three different geographic and climatic areas in lebanon. European Scientific J 2014; 2: 412-9.

Nazzaro, Fratianni F, Martino LD, Coppola R, Feo VD. Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria filomena. Pharmaceuticals 2013; 6: 1451-74.

Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. Int J Food Microbiol 2004; 94(3): 223–53.

Akiyama H, Fujii K, Yamasaki O, Oono T, Iwatsuki K. Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 48(4): 487-91.

Islam B, Khan AN, Khan AU. Dental caries: from infection to prevention. Med Sci Monit 2007; 13 (11): 196-203.

Mailoa MN, Mahendradatta M, Laga A, Djide N. Antimicrobial activities of tannins extract from guava leaves (Psidium Guajava L) on pathogens microbial. Int J Sci Technol 2014; 3(1): 236-41.

Sabir A. In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against Streptococcus mutans. Dent J (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) 2005; 38(3): 135–41.

Mirzoeva OK, Grishanin RN, Calder PC. Antimicrobial action of propolis and some of its components: the effects on growth, membrane potential, and motility of bacteria. Microbiol Res 1997; 152: 239-46.

Vasconcelos LCS, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MCC, Pereira MSV, Higino JS, Peixoto MHP. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (Pomegranate) gel againts S. mutans, S. mitis, and C albicans. Braz Dent J 2006; 17(13): 223-7.

Alghazeer R, Elmansori A, Sidati M, Gammoudi F, Azwai S, Naas H, Garbaj A, Eldaghayes I. In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoid extracts of two selected libyan algae against multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from food products. JBM 2017; 5: 26-48.

Roberts AW, Dusetzina SB, Farley JF. Revisiting the washout period in the incident user study design: why 6–12 months may not be sufficient. J Comp Eff Res 2015; 4(1): 27–35.

Charles CH, Sharma NC, Galustians HJ, Qaqish J, McGuire JA, Vincent JW.Comparative efficacy of an antiseptic mouthrinse and an antiplaque or antigingivitis dentifrice. A six-month clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132: 670-5.

Graziani F, Gabriele M, D’Aiuto F, Suvan J, Tonelli M, Cei S. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation and tooth discolouration with different commercial–formulations of 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Oral Health Prev Dent 2015; 13: 101-11.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats