University Students' Ability in Evaluating Fake News on Social Media
Background of the study: Social media has become a traffic information exchange, both true and false information. Therefore, social media users should not simply believe the information they received. This paper investigates the process of evaluating news on social media carried out by students in assessing the news they find on social media, and their ability to distinguish factual and false news.
Purpose: It is to find out more about the process of students evaluating news on social media by assessing the news they found on social media, and how can they know which is the factual news and which is the fake news.
Method: This research uses qualitative research methods with a descriptive approach. This research was conducted at Gadjah Mada University. The purposive sampling technique was chosen to be used in determining participants.
Findings: Overall, participants were able to identify almost all news articles. Participants are able to identify almost all factual news articles correctly and most fake news articles correctly. Only a small portion of all news articles cannot be correctly identified by participants. Participants are better to identify factual news than fake news.
Conclusion: Although participants already have experience in finding fake news on social media and have self-taught knowledge about how to distinguish fake news from reliable news, this is no guarantee that they can tell the news article they got fake news or factual news. The researcher wants to give advice to the academic library to provide training on the characteristics of reliable referral sources and to think critically in assessing information as part of student information literacy training.
Bartlett, B. (2017). The truth matters: A citizen’s guide to separating facts from lies and stopping fake news in its tracks. CA, USA: Ten Speed Press.
Centre for International Governance Innovation. (2019). 2019 CIGI-Ipsos global survey on internet security and trust. CIGI. Dilihat di: https://www.cigionline.org/internet-survey-2019.
Cooke, N. A. (2017). Post-truth, truthiness, and alternative facts: Information behaviour and critical information consumption for a new age. The Library Quarterly, 87, 211-221.
Finneman, T., & Thomas, R. J. (2018). A family of falsehoods: Deception, media hoaxes and fake news. Newspaper Research Journal, 39(3), 350-361.
France-Presse, A. (2019, Agustus 23). Hong Kong protest: Youtube takes down 200 channels spreading disinformation. The Guardian. Dilihat di: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/aug/23/hong-kong-protests-youtube-takes-down-200-channels-spreading-disinformation. Diakses tanggal 16 September 2019
Funke, D., & Flamini, D. (2018). A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. Poynter. Dilihat di: https://www.poynter.org/ifcn/anti-misinformation-actions/.
Guo, L., & Vargo, C. (2018). Fake news and emerging online media ecosystem: An integrated intermedia agenda-setting analysis of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Communication Resarch, 1-23.
Haryanto, A. T. (2019, April 21). Menkominfo mau tinjau lagi program literasi digital, kenapa?. Detikinet. Dilihat di: https://inet.detik.com/cyberlife/d-4493187/menkominfo-mau-tinjau-lagi-program-literasi-digital-kenapa. Diakses tanggal 28 April 2019.
Hunt, A., Gentzkow, M., & Yu, C. (2018). Trends in the diffusion of misinformation on social media. Research and Politics, 6(2), 1-8.
International Federation of Library Associations and Instutions. (2018). IFLA statements on fake news. IFLA. Dilihat di: https://www.ifla.org/publications/node/11174.
Khairunissa. (2020). Perilaku pencarian informasi mahasiswa dalam mengautentikasi fake news di media sosial. (Unpublish magister theses). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Leeder, C. (2019). How college students evaluate and share fake news stories. Library and Information Science Research, 41(2019), 100967.
Metzger, M. J., Flanagin, A. J., Markov, A., Grossman, R., & Bulger, M. (2015). Believing the unbelievable: Understanding young people’s information literacy beliefs and practices in the United States. Journal of Children and Media, 9, 325-348.
Nelson, J. L. & Taneja, H. (2018). The small disloyal fake news audience: The role of audience availability in fake news consumption. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3720-3737.
Park, C. S. (2019). Does too much news on social media discourage news seeking? Mediating role of news efficacy between perceived news overload and news avoidance on social media. Social Media + Society, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119872956.
Pearson, G. D., & Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2018). Perusing pages and skimming screens: Exploring differing patterns of selective exposure to hard news and professional sources in online and print news. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3580–3596. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818755565.
Rapp, D. N., & Salovich, N. A. (2018). Can’t we just disregard fake news? The concequences of exposure to inaccurate information. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 5(2), 232-239.
Rayess, M. E., Chebl, C., Mhanna, J., Hage, R. (2018). Fake news judgement: The case of undergraduate students at Notre Dame University-Louaize, Lebanon. Reference Services Review, 46(1), 146-149. https://doi.org/10.1108/RSR-07-2017-0027.
Richardson, N. (2017). Fake news and journalism education. Asia Pacific Media Edcator, 27(1), 1-9.
Ross, A. S. & Rivers, D. J. (2018). Discursive deflection: Accusation of “fake news” and the spread of mis- and disinformation in the tweets of President Trump. Social Media + Society, 1-12.
Saraswati, P. (2017, Agustus 25). Saracen dan ‘bisnis kebencian’ di era Jokowi. CNN Indonesia. Dilihat di: https://m.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20170825093304-20-237190/saracen-dan-bisnis-kebencian-di-era-jokowi. Diakses tanggal 23 Maret 2019.
Siberkreasi. (n.d.) Siberkreasi. Di lihat di https://siberkreasi.id/.
Silverman, C. (2016). Lies, damn lies, and viral content. (A Tow/Knight Report). Tow Center for Digital Journalism.
Spohr, D. (2017). Fake news and ideological polarization: Filter bubbles and selective exposure on social media. Business Information Review, 34(3), 150-160.
Tandoc, E. C. Jr., Ling, R., Westlund, O., Duffy, A., & Goh, D.,Wei, L. Z. (2017). Audiences’ act of authentication in the age of fake news: A conceptual framework. New Media & Society, 20(8), 2745-2763. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817731756.
Tandoc, E. C. Jr., Lim, D., Ling, R. (2019). Diffusion of disinformation: How social media users respond to fake news and why. Journalism, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884919868325.
Trilling, D., & Schoenbach, K. (2013). Skipping current affairs: The non-users of online and offline news. European Journal of Communication, 28(1), 35–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323112453671.
Weidner, K., Beuk, F., & Bal, A. (2019). Fake news and the willingness to share: A schemer schema and conﬁrmatory bias perspective. Journal of Product & Brand Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-12-2018-2155.
Zimerman, M. (2012). Digital natives, searching behavior and the library. New Library World, 113(3/4), 174–201.
Record and Library Journal by Unair is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
1. The journal allows the author to hold the copyright of the article without restrictions.
2. The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions
3. The legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA).
4. The Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA) license allows re-distribution and re-use of a licensed work on the conditions that the creator is appropriately credited and that any derivative work is made available under “the same, similar or a compatible license”. Other than the conditions mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.