Komunitas Fitoplankton Pada Sistem Budidaya Intensif Udang Vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei di Probolinggo, Jawa Timur
[Phytoplankton Community at Intensive Cultivation System of White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in Pr

Nasrullah Bai Arifin, Muhammad Fakhri, Muhammad Fakhri, Ating Yuniarti, Ating Yuniarti, Anik Martinah Hariati, Anik Martinah Hariati

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jipk.v10i1.8542
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Abstract


                                                    Abstrak

Fitoplankton merupakan sumber pakan alami pada budidaya udang di tambak. Produktivitas fitoplankton dapat meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya kandungan nutrien di tambak. Sisa metabolisme dan pakan merupakan sumber nutrien bagi pertumbuhan fitoplankton di tambak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi produktivitas dan mengidentifikasi jenis fitoplankton pada sistem budidaya intensif udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tiga petak tambak budidaya intensif udang vaname di Probolinggo, Jawa Timur. Pengambilan sampel air tambak dilakukan pada hari ke-17 dan hari ke-87 masa budidaya masing-masing dua kali setiap petak. Empat parameter lingkungan yaitu total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrat, orthophosphate, total padatan tersupensi (TSS), dan klorofil diukur pada setiap sampel air tambak. Selain itu, kami juga mengidentifikasi dan menghitung fitoplankton pada setiap sampel. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas pada ke tiga tambak berkisar antara 22.893,83 kg/ha sampai 23.600,61 kg/ha dengan ukuran panen 12,74 g/ekor sampai 14,35 g/ekor. Selama masa budidaya, konsentrasi TAN, TSS, dan klorofil meningkat seiring dengan semakin lamanya masa budidaya. Sementara itu, rerata kandungan nitrat dan orthophosphate cenderung menurun seiring bertambahnya masa budidaya. Jenis fitoplankton yang teridentifikasi yaitu dalam genus Oocystis, Chlorella, Nannochloropsis, Chaetoceros, Stephanodiscus, Nitzschia, Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, dan Ulothrix. Fitoplankton dari kelompok Chlorophyta merupakan jenis yang dominan pada tambak 1 dan 2, sedangkan tambak 3 didominasi oleh kelompok Diatom. Penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa keberadaan fitoplankton di tambak mendukung ketersediaan pakan alami dan lingkungan yang baik bagi budidaya udang.

 

                                                     Abstract

Phytoplankton is a source of natural feed for shrimp cultivation in the pond. Phytoplankton productivity increases by the increased nutrient content in the pond. Feed and metabolic waste is the sources of nutrient for phytoplankton growth. This study aimed to evaluate productivity and identify phytoplankton at intensive white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei cultivation system. This study was conducted at three intensive white shrimp located in Probolinggo, East Java. Samples were collected on the early and the late of culture period (day 17 and 87 after stocking). Four environmental parameters including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrate, orthophosphate, total suspended solids (TSS), and chlorophyll-a were measured. Identification and density of phytoplankton were also performed of each pond. The result showed that the productivity of three ponds was 22,893.83 kg/ha to 23,600.61 kg/ha with an average size of 12.74 g to 14.35 g. During culture period, the concentration of TAN, TSS, and chlorophyll-a tended to increase. Meanwhile, the average of both nitrate and orthophosphate tended to decline. Several phytoplankton identified in this study were in the genus of Oocystis, Chlorella, Nannochloropsis, Chaetoceros, Stephanodiscus, Nitzschia, Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, and Ulothrix. Phytoplankton of the group Chlorophyta is predominance for pond 1 and 2, while pond 3 was dominated by phytoplankton in the group of Diatom/Baccillariophyta. This study indicated that the presence of phytoplankton in the pond provides natural feed and good environmental condition for shrimp cultivation.


Keywords


Phytoplankton, Intensive cultivation system, Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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