Correlation of parity and age to services per conception, conception rate, and gestation length in Holstein Friesian cross cows
Small farmers dominate dairy farming in Indonesia, and the average productivity is low. The contribution of domestic production only reaches about 23% of the total national milk consumption needs as a source of human nutrition. This study was aimed to identify the relationship between cow's parity and age to services per conception (S/C), conception rate (CR), and gestation length (GL) of Holstein Friesian (HF) cross dairy cows. Data of this study consisted of primary data obtained from farmers interview, and secondary data from the Cooperative Unit of Argopuro village, Krucil, Probolinggo. Sample size was 200 cows, which was 10% of the total population. Data were analyzed for correlation and linear regression using the Statistic Package and Service Solution (SPSS) software version 20 (IBM Corp., USA) at a 95% confidence level. The average S/C, CR, and GL were 2.55 ± 1.57, 21%, and 278.19 ± 11.92 days, respectively. There was no significant correlation (p >0.05) between the parity with S/C, CR, and GL and the age with CR and GL. The only significant correlation (p <0.05) was between the age and S/C. Regression of S/C based on age followed the equation S/C = 0.104 + 0.407*age, with a correlation coefficient and determination coefficient of 0.733 and 0.538, respectively. It could be concluded that S/C could be predicted based on the age of the cows.
Abdillah F, Hartono M, Siswanto S. 2015. Conception rate at lactating dairy cattle in Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul dan Hijauan Pakan Tenak (BBPTU-HPT) Baturraden Purwokerto Central Java. J Ilmiah Peternakan Terpadu 3: 98-105.
Ananda HM, Wurlina W, Hidajati N, Hariadi M, Samik A, Restiadi TI. 2019. Relationship between Age with Interval Calving, Days Open, and Services per Conception of Holstein Friesian (HF) cow. Ovozoa 8: 94-9.
BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) 2021. Jumlah Perusahaan Peternakan Sapi Perah Menurut Provinsi (2021) umlah Perusahaan Peternakan Sapi Perah Menurut Provinsi (2021) Sumber : Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2021/11/23/perusahaan-ternak-sapi-perah-di-jawa-barat-terbanyak-nasional-pada-2021
Burgers EEA, Kok A, Goselink RMA, Hogeveen H, Kemp B, van Knegsel ATM. 2021. Fertility and milk production on commercial dairy farms with customized lactation lengths. J Dairy Sci. 104: 443-58.
Cardoso Consentini CE, Wiltbank MC, Sartori R. 2021. Factors That Optimize Reproductive Efficiency in Dairy Herds with an Emphasis on Timed Artificial Insemination Programs. Animals (Basel). 11: 301.
Cielava L, Jonkus D, Paura L. 2017. Number of services per conception and its relationship with dairy cow productive and reproductive traits. Res Rural Dev. 2: 67-73.
Dallago GM, Wade KM, Cue RI, McClure JT, Lacroix R, Pellerin D, Vasseur E. 2021. Keeping Dairy Cows for Longer: A Critical Literature Review on Dairy Cow Longevity in High Milk-Producing Countries. Animals (Basel). 11: 808.
Darmawan MA, Suranindyah YY, Widayati DT. 2019 The correlation between blood metabolic and reproductive performance on the Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ Sci. 387 012023
Dayyani N, Karkudi K, Bakhtiar H. 2013. Reproductive performance definition in dairy cattle: affective factors. Int J Adv Biol Biom Res. 1: 1392-6.
Gábor G, Balogh O, Kern L, Gábor P, Fébel H. 2016. Nutrition, Metabolic Status and Reproductive Efficiency in Dairy Herds. Open J Anim Sci. 6: 75-84.
Haile B, Yoseph M. 2018. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cows at Alage Dairy Farm, Ethiopia. Dairy Vet Sci J. 7: 1-8.
Hamid M, Abdurahman S, Tadesse B. 2021. Risk Factors for the Efficiency of Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows and Economic Impact of Failure of First Service Insemination in and around Haramaya Town, Oromia Region, Eastern Ethiopia. Vet Med Int. 2021: 6622487.
Howlader MMR, Rahman MM, Hossain MG, Hai MA. 2019. Factors Affecting Conception Rate of Dairy Cows Following Artificial Insemination in Selected Area at Sirajgonj District of Bangladesh. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 13: 9907-13.
Jeon R-H, Rho G-J. 2019. Gestation length in Holstein cow depends on the number and sex of fetuses. Korean J Vet Res 59:181-5.
Kim IH, Jeong JK. 2019. Risk factors limiting first service conception rate in dairy cows and their economic impact. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 32: 519-26.
Krpálková L, O‘Mahony N, Carvalho A, Campbell S, Walsh J. 2020. Evaluating the economic profit of reproductive performance through the integration of a dynamic programming model on a specific dairy farm. Czech J Anim Sci. 65: 124-34.
Nasr MAF, Hussein MA, Alkhedaide AQ, El-Tarabany MS, Roushdy EM. 2021. Reproductive Performance and Culling Rate of Purebred Holstein Cows and Their Crosses With Fleckvieh and Brown Swiss Cows Under Subtropical Conditions. Front Vet Sci. 8: 752941.
Nogalski Z, Piwczyński D. 2012. Association of length of pregnancy with other reproductive traits in dairy cattle. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 25: 22-7.
Potdar VV, Phadke NL, Khadse JR. 2017. Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in Gestation Length of Dairy Cattle. Int J Trop Agric 35: 735-43.
Prabowo TA, Indarjulianto S, Pertiwiningrum A, Sugiyanto C, Priyanto L. 2021. Reproduction Performance and Milk Production of Dairy Cows in Tegalombo District, Pacitan Regency, East Java Province. J Peternakan Sriwijaya 10: 29-36.
Purwantini TB, Saliem HP, Ariningsih E, Erwidodo E, Anugrah IS, Suryani E,Irawan AR, Hetherington JB. 2021. The performance of smallholder dairy farms in West Java. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 892: 1-8.
Römer A, Boldt A, Harms J. 2020. One calf per cow and year – not a sensible goal for high-yielding cows from either an economic or an animal welfare perspective. J Sustainable Organic Agric Syst 70: 39–44.
Scanavez AL, and Mendonça LG. 2018. Gestation Length and Overall Performance in the Subsequent Lactation of Dairy Cows Conceiving to Holstein, Jersey, or Angus Semen: An Observational Study. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports 4 (10): 1-9.
Siatka K, Sawa A, Czopek SK, Piwczyński D, Bogucki M. 2017. Effect of Some Factors on Number of Services per Conception in Dairy Cows. J Vet Sci Technol. 8: 2-4.
Soeharsono S, Mulyati S, Utama S, Wurlina W, Srianto P, Restiadi TI, Mustofa I. 2020. Prediction of daily milk production from the linear body and udder morphometry in Holstein Friesian dairy cows. Vet World. 13: 471-7.
Susilowati S, Wurlina W, Mulyati S, Utama S, Meles DK. 2020. Silage, complete feed, and growth promoter feeding for repeat breeder dairy cows on Services per Conception and milk production. Ovozoa 9: 28-34.
Yusuf M, Toleng AL, Rahardja DP, Sahiruddin S, Long ST. 2019. The incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Dairy Cows under Smallholder Farms. Hasanuddin J Anim Sci. 1: 22-7.
Copyright (c) 2022 Norma Amalia Ulfah, Abdul Samik, Mas’ud Hariadi, Tri Wahyu Suprayogi, Sri Hidanah
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Ovozoa by Unair is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
1. The journal allows the author to hold the copyright of the article without restrictions.
2. The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions
3. The legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA).
4. The Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA) license allows re-distribution and re-use of a licensed work on the conditions that the creator is appropriately credited and that any derivative work is made available under “the same, similar or a compatible license”. Other than the conditions mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.