Pengembangan Indeks Ketahanan Pangan Rumah Tangga dan Kaitannya dengan Tingkat Kecukupan Zat Gizi dan Status Gizi Anak Balita

Sutyawan Sutyawan, Ali Khomsan, Dadang Sukandar

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v3i4.2019.201-211
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Abstract


 

Background: Household food insecurity is a underlaying causes on undernutrition problems in children under five years. Household food security especially from food acces dimention is reflected from many indicators that are complex and easier to understand in a composite index.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a index of household food security and its relationship to nutrient intake level and nutritional status in children under five years.

Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages in West Bangka Regency in December 2018 until April 2019. The study involved 219 subjects consisting of mothers and children aged 12-59 months. Data were analyzed using Rank Spearman relationship test.

Results: The validation results showed that the index score has a negatively correlation (p<0.01) with the proportion of food expenditure and it has a significant correlation with dietary diversity (HDDS Score). In addition, the index score was a significant correlation (p<0.01) with the level of adequacy of energy, protein, fat, calcium, iron, zinc and dietary diversity in children. The index score was a significant associated (p<0.01) with the nutritional status of children based on height for age, weight gor age, and height for wight.

Conclusions: The index was developed from this study can be an alternative to evaluate the status of household food security level and stronger marker of food consumption and nutritional status of under five children.


ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang: Kondisi rawan pangan pada rumah tangga merupakan salah satu penyebab masalah kekurangan gizi pada anak berusia di bawah lima tahun. Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga tercermin dari banyak indikator yang kompleks dan lebih mudah dipahami dalam indeks komposit.

Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan indeks ketahanan pangan rumah tangga serta hubungannya dengan tingkat asupan gizi dan status gizi pada anak balita.

Metode: Penelitian cross-sectional ini dilakukan di empat desa di Kabupaten Bangka Barat. Penelitian ini melibatkan 219 subjek yang terdiri dari anak berusia 12-59 bulan dan ibu dari anak. Data dianalis menggunakan uji beda Kruskal Wallis dan uji hubungan Rank Spearman.

Hasil: Hasil validasi menunjukkan bahwa skor indeks memiliki perbedaan yang nyata (p<0,05) berdasarkan tingkat kerentanan pangan wilayah dan terdapat hubungan negatif yang kuat (p<0,05) dengan proporsi pengeluaran pangan. Selain itu, skor indeks memiliki keterkaitan yang kuat (p<0,05) dengan tingkat kecukupan energi, protein, lemak, kalsium, besi, seng serta keragaman diet pada balita. Skor indeks juga memiliki hubungan yang nyata (p<0,05) dengan nilai z-score status gizi balita berdasarkan indeks antropometri tinggi badan menurut usia, berat badan menurut umur, dan tinggi badan menurut berat badan.

Kesimpulan: Indeks yang dikembangkan dari penelitian ini dapat menjadi alternatif dalam menilai status ketahanan pangan rumah tangga serta prediktor yang kuat dalam melihat gambaran konsumsi pangan dan status gizi balita.

 


Keywords


Household food security index, nutrient level intake, nutritional status, under five children

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